According to Lawrence Journal-World a national group that studies cell phone usage said that a proposed cell phone ban in Lawrence, Kan. would be tougher than any other cell phone ban in the county. The ban would prohibit the use of both hand-held cell phones and hands-free cell phone devices for all motorists. The ban may have one exception: Motorists could use a cell phone to make an emergency call to police, fire or other agencies. Many cell phone researchers are behind such a ban. Studies done in both Australia and Canada show that motorists talking on cell phones—whether hand-held or hands-free—were four times more likely to get in accidents. A study of the ban in New York—which made national headlines four years ago for becoming the first state to ban motorists from using hand-held cell phones—found that hand-held cell phones used by drivers initially dropped by half. However, the rate had virtually returned to pre-ban rates after a year. In Washington D.C. the rate of hand-held cell phone usage also went down about 50 percent following its ban, but unlike in New York, the rate remained below pre-ban levels. This is due to the city’s aggressive enforcement of the ban; tickets for cell phone violations there represent 8 percent of all moving violations compared with 4 percent in New York. The proposed ordinance lists a maximum fine of $100 for violating the ban, but lists no minimum fine. Any decision by the Traffic Safety Commission must be approved by city commissioners before it is final.